In the case of Pinot Noir this refers to a whole family of grape vines that although having very similar characteristics also have subtle differences. In the French catalogue of grape varieties cultivated in France, 1000 different clones of Pinot Noir are described. Mutations (genetic changes) occur under the influence of factors such as heat, radiation, including UV light and chemicals. The longer a vine exists the more likely it is that one of the mutagens will cause a new clone to appear. Pinot Noir is one of the oldest grape varieties and as such many clones have formed. In Australia there are 15 significant clones of Pinot Noir, of which the most commonly planted is MV6. Newer clones, including those known as the Dijon or Bernard clones such as 114,115 and 777 have begun to appear at vineyards in recent years.